Jai Bheem -The Architect of Modern India


Dr. B.R. Ambedkar – Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar

Ambedkar as a young man

“GOD for Dalits.” The architect of the Indian Constitution. The architect of Modern India

Born: April 14, 1891

Died: December 6, 1956

Place of Birth: Mhow in Central Provinces (currently Madhya Pradesh)

Parents: Ramji Maloji Sakpal (father) and Bhimabai Murbadkar Sakpal (mother)

Spouse: Ramabai Ambedkar (1906-1935); Dr. Sharada Kabir rechristened Savita Ambedkar (1948-1956)

Education: Elphinstone High School, University of Bombay, Columbia University, London School of Economics

Education B.A. (1913)
M.A. (twice, 1915 & 1916)
Ph.D. (1916, awarded in 1927)
M.Sc. (1921)
Barrister-at-law (1922)
D.Sc. (1923)
LL.D. (1952, hon.)
D.Litt. (1953, hon.)
Alma mater
Occupation Lawyer and Professor
Profession Jurist, economist, politician, social reformer, anthropologist, author, historian, sociologist, social scientist, educationist, freedom fighter, journalist, human rights activist, philosopher
Known for Dalit rights movementConstitution of IndiaDalit Buddhist movementAmbedkarism
Awards Bharat Ratna (posthumously in 1990)

Associations: Samata Sainik Dal, Independent Labour Party, Scheduled Castes Federation

Political Ideology: Right winged; Equalism

Religious Beliefs: Hinduism by birth; Buddhism 1956 onwards

Publications: Essays on Untouchables and Untouchability, The Annihilation of Caste, Waiting for a Visa

Passed Away: 6, December 1956

Ambedkar with his family members at Rajgruha in February 1934. From left – Yashwant (son), Ambedkar, Ramabai (wife), Laxmibai (wife of his elder brother, Balaram), Mukund (nephew) and Ambedkar’s favorite dog, Tobby

Achievements: Dr. B.R. Ambedkar was elected as the chairman of the drafting committee that was constituted by the Constituent Assembly to draft a constitution for independent India;

He was the first Law Minister of India; conferred Bharat Ratna in 1990. Dr. B.R. Ambedkar is viewed as the messiah of Dalits and downtrodden in India. He was the chairman of the drafting committee that was constituted by the Constituent Assembly in 1947 to draft a constitution for independent India.

He played a seminal role in the framing of the constitution. Bhimrao Ambedkar was also the first Law Minister of India. For his yeoman service to the nation, B.R. Ambedkar was bestowed with Bharat Ratna in 1990. 

Dr.Bhimrao Ambedkar was born on April 14, 1891 in Mhow (presently in Madhya Pradesh). He was the fourteenth child of Ramji and Bhimabai Sakpal Ambavedkar. B.R. Ambedkar belonged to the “untouchable” Mahar Caste.

His father and grandfather served in the British Army. In those days, the government ensured that all the army personnel and their children were educated and ran special schools for this purpose. This ensured a good education for Bhimrao Ambedkar, which would have otherwise been denied to him by the virtue of his caste. Bhimrao Ambedkar experienced caste discrimination right from childhood.

After his retirement, Bhimrao’s father settled in Satara Maharashtra. Bhimrao was enrolled in the local school. Here, he had to sit on the floor in one corner in the classroom and teachers would not touch his notebooks. In spite of these hardships, Bhimrao continued his studies and passed his Matriculation examination from Bombay University with flying colors in 1908. Bhim Rao Ambedkar joined the Elphinstone College for further education. In 1912, he graduated in Political Science and Economics from Bombay University and got a job in Baroda. In 1913, Bhimrao Ambedkar lost his father.

In the same year, Maharaja of Baroda awarded a scholarship to Bhim Rao Ambedkar and sent him to America for further studies.

Bhimrao reached New York in July 1913. For the first time in his life, Bhim Rao was not demeaned for being a Mahar. He immersed himself in the studies and attained a degree in Master of Arts and a Doctorate in Philosophy from Columbia University in 1916 for his thesis “National Dividend for India: A Historical and Analytical Study.” From America, Dr.Ambedkar proceeded to London to study economics and political science.

But the Baroda government terminated his scholarship and recalled him back. The Maharaja of Baroda appointed Dr. Ambedkar as his political secretary. But no one would take orders from him because he was a Mahar. Bhimrao Ambedkar returned to Bombay in November 1917. With the help of Shahu Maharaj of Kolhapur, a sympathizer of the cause for the upliftment of the depressed classes, he started a fortnightly newspaper, the “Mooknayak” (Dumb Hero) on January 31, 1920. The Maharaja also convened many meetings and conferences of the “untouchables” which Bhimrao addressed.

In September 1920, after accumulating sufficient funds, Ambedkar went back to London to complete his studies. He became a barrister and got a Doctorate in science. After completing his studies in London, Ambedkar returned to India. In July 1924, he founded the Bahishkrit Hitkaraini Sabha (Outcastes Welfare Association). The aim of the Sabha was to uplift the downtrodden socially and politically and bring them to the level of the others in the Indian society. In 1927, he led the Mahad March at the Chowdar Tank at Colaba, near Bombay, to give the untouchables the right to draw water from the public tank where he burnt copies of the ‘Manusmriti’ publicly.

In 1929, Ambedkar made the controversial decision to co-operate with the all-British Simon Commission which was to look into setting up a responsible Indian Government in India. The Congress decided to boycott the Commission and drafted its own version of a constitution for free India. The Congress version had no provisions for the depressed classes. Ambedkar became more skeptical of Congress’s commitment to safeguarding the rights of the depressed classes. When a separate electorate was announced for the depressed classes under Ramsay McDonald ‘Communal Award’, Gandhiji went on a fast unto death against this decision.

Leaders rushed to Dr. Ambedkar to drop his demand. On September 24, 1932, Dr. Ambedkar and Gandhiji reached an understanding, which became the famous Poona Pact.

According to the pact the separate electorate demand was replaced with special concessions like reserved seats in the regional legislative assemblies and Central Council of States. Dr. Ambedkar attended all the three Round Table Conferences in London and forcefully argued for the welfare of the “untouchables”. Meanwhile, the British Government decided to hold provincial elections in 1937.

Dr. B.R. Ambedkar set up the “Independent Labor Party” in August 1936 to contest the elections in the Bombay province. He and many candidates of his party were elected to the Bombay Legislative Assembly.

In 1937, Dr. Ambedkar introduced a Bill to abolish the “khoti” system of land tenure in the Konkan region, the serfdom of agricultural tenants and the Mahar “watan” system of working for the Government as slaves. A clause of an agrarian bill referred to the depressed classes as “Harijans,” or people of God. Bhimrao was strongly opposed to this title for the untouchables. He argued that if the “untouchables” were people of God then all others would be people of monsters. He was against any such reference.

But the Indian National Congress succeeded in introducing the term Harijan. Ambedkar felt bitter that they could not have any say in what they were called. In 1947, when India became independent, the first Prime Minister Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru invited Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar, who had been elected as a Member of the Constituent Assembly from Bengal, to join his Cabinet as a Law Minister.

The Constituent Assembly entrusted the job of drafting the Constitution to a committee and Dr. Ambedkar was elected as Chairman of this Drafting Committee. In February 1948, Dr. Ambedkar presented the Draft Constitution before the people of India; it was adopted on November 26, 1949.

In October 1948, Dr. Ambedkar submitted the Hindu Code Bill to the Constituent Assembly in an attempt to codify the Hindu law. The Bill caused great divisions even in the Congress party. Consideration for the bill was postponed to September 1951.

When the Bill was taken up it was truncated. A dejected Ambedkar relinquished his position as Law Minister. On May 24, 1956, on the occasion of Buddha Jayanti, he declared in Bombay, that he would adopt Buddhism in October. On 0ctober 14, 1956 he embraced Buddhism along with many of his followers. On December 6, 1956, Baba Saheb Dr. B.R. Ambedkar died peacefully in his sleep.

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November 26 is celebrated as the Constitution Day or the Samvidhan Day of India.

It is celebrated to mark Ambedkar’s birth anniversary remembering his contribution in the formation of the Constitution of India.

The aim of celebrating the day

Prime Minister Narendra Modi marked this day as the Constitution Day of India on November 19, 2015, while laying the foundation stone of the Ambedkar memorial in Mumbai.

It was marked as a part of a year-long celebration of the 125th birth anniversary of Dr. B R Ambedkar, the Chairman of the Drafting Committee of Constituent Assembly.

The aim of declaring November 26 as the Constitution Day of India is to spread awareness on the importance of the Indian Constitution and to spread awareness about its architect, Dr. B R Ambedkar.

Facts about Dr. B R Ambedkar

Born on April 14, 1891, in Madhya Pradesh, Dr. Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar is also known as Babasaheb Ambedkar.

He was a renowned social reformer, politician and jurist. Ambedkar is called the Father of Indian Constitution.

He was born in a family of Mahar caste of Hindu household, which is viewed as a caste of untouchables.

Due to caste discrimination, Ambedkar had to face a lot of discrimination in society from time-to-time.

Ambedkar was the founder member of the Independent Labour Party. Later, the name was changed to Scheduled Castes Federation by Babasaheb and later evolved as the Republican Party of India.

His party fought the 1937 Bombay election to the Central Legislative Assembly for 13 reserved and four general seats, he won 11 and 3 seats respectively.

Babasaheb was appointed as the Union Law Minister and Chairman of the Constitution Drafting Committee.

The Constitution Drafting Committee was given the responsibility of writing the constitution on India.

AMBEDKAR’S CONTRIBUTION ON BUILDING THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

Ambedkar was appointed as the chairman of the constitution drafting committee on August 29, 1947
He believed that the gap between different classes was important to equalize, otherwise, it will be very difficult to maintain the unity of the country
He emphasized on religious, gender and caste equality
Ambedkar introduced the reservation system to create a social balance amongst the classes

Facts on the Constitution of India:

  • The constitution was adopted on November 26, 1949, while it came into force on January 26, 1950
  • The Constitution of India was not typeset or printed but was handwritten and calligraphed in both English and Hindi
  • The original copies of the Constitution of India are kept in special helium-filled cases in the Library of the Parliament of India
  • Indian Constitution is known as a bag of borrowings
  • The concepts of Liberty, Equality, and Fraternity were taken from the French Constitution
  • The concept of five-year plans was taken from the USSR
  • The Directive Principles were taken from Ireland
  • The laws on which the Supreme Court functions were taken from Japan
  • It is the longest written constitution of an independent country in the world

The Constitution of India contains 448 articles in 25 parts, 12 schedules, 5 appendices and 98 amendments.

  • The Constituent Assembly had 284 members, out of which 15 were women
  • The draft was submitted in November 1949. After the submission, it took three more years to complete it
  • All the 284 members of the Constituent Assembly signed the documents on January 24, 1950
  • The constitution came into effect on January 26
  • The National Emblem of India too was adopted on the same day
  • The Indian Constitution is known as one of the world’s best constitutions, especially because it has only seen 94 amendments.

The making of a nation: First Constituent Assembly of India

India's first Constituent Assembly

On December 9 in 1946, Constitutional Committee Assembly of India held its first meeting after a gap of two years, 11 months and 17 days at the Parliament.

Here are some facts you must know:

  • A constituent assembly is an apex committee, consisting of representatives from all walks of life, which designs and adopts a constitution
  • The idea of a constituent assembly for India was proposed by Manabendra Nath Roy, a founder-member of the Communist Party of India, in the year 1934
  • The proposal became a demand of the Indian National Congress in 1935. The British accepted the proposal in 1940
  • The draft of the constitution of India was prepared by this committee. The draft included areas that are now in Pakistan and Bangladesh
  • The assembly had 296 seats, out of which the Congress had won 208, while the All India Muslim League acquired 73 seats
  • Dr. Rajendra Prasad was the President of the committee while Jawaharlal Nehru was chosen to be the Union Head of the state committee
  • On this very meeting, the Muslim League demanded a separate country for the Muslim-dominated population in North-West India

Let us know a few facts about the Indian Constitution:

  • The Constitution was adopted on November 26, 1949, while it came into force on January 26, 1950
  • The Constitution of India was not typeset or printed but was handwritten and calligraphed in both English and Hindi
  • The original copies of the Constitution of India are kept in special helium-filled cases in the Library of the Parliament of India
  • Indian Constitution is known as a bag of borrowings; the concepts of Liberty, Equality, and Fraternity were taken from the French constitution, the concept of five-year plans was taken from the USSR, the Directive principles were taken from Ireland, the law on which the Supreme Court functions were taken from Japan
  • It is the longest written constitution of any independent country in the world
  • The Constitution of India contains 448 articles in 25 parts, 12 schedules, 5 appendices, and 98 amendments
  • The Constituent Assembly had 284 members, out of which 15 were women
  • The draft was submitted in November 1949. After the submission, it took three years to complete it
  • All the 284 members of the Constituent Assembly signed the documents on January 24, 1950
  • The constitution came into effect on January 26
  • The national emblem of India, too, was adopted on the same day
  • Indian constitution is known as one of the world’s best constitution, especially since it has only seen 94 amendments.

Ambedkar and the Constitution of India on a 2015 postal cover of India

 

The bronze statue of Ambedkar in Ambedkar Memorial at Lucknow; the base is inscribed “My struggle of life is my only message.” The Ambedkar statue to modeled on the sculpture of Abraham Lincoln at the Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D.C.


Films and televisions

Films

These are the List of Films based on the life and thoughts of B. R. Ambedkar (according to years of Release):

Televisions

Completed books
  1. Administration and finance of the East India Company
  2. The Evolution of Provincial Finance in British India, 1925
  3. The problem of the Rupees: Its Origin and Its Solution, 1923
  4. Annihilation of Caste, 1936
  5. Which way to Emancipation?, 1936
  6. Federation versus Freedom, 1936
  7. Pakistan or the Partition of India [Thoughts on Pakistan], 1940
  8. RandeGandhi and Jinnah, 1943
  9. Mr. Gandhi and the Emancipation of the Untouchables, 1943
  10. What Congress and Gandhi Have Done to the Untouchables, 1945
  11. Communal Deadlock and a Way to Solve It, 1946
  12. Who Were the Shudras?, 1946
  13. A critique of The Proposals of Cabinet Mission for Indian Constitution changes in so far as they affect the Scheduled Castes (Untouchable), 1946
  14. The Cabinet Mission and the Untouchables, 1946
  15. States and Minorities, 1947
  16. Maharashtra as a Linguist Province, 1948
  17. The Untouchables: Who Were They are Why The Become Untouchables, 1948
  18. Thoughts on Linguistic States: A critique of the Report of the States Reorganization Commission, 1955
  19. The Buddha and His Dhamma, 1957
  20. Riddle’s in Hinduism
  21. Dictionary of Pali Language [Pali-English]
  22. The Pali Grammar
Incomplete books
  1. Waiting for a Visa [an autobiography]
  2. A people at Bay
  3. Untouchables or the Children of India’s Ghetto
  4. Can I be a Hindu?
  5. What the Brahmins Have Done to the Hindus
  6. Essays of Bhagwat Gita
  7. India and Communism
  8. Revolution and Counter-revolution in Ancient India
  9. The Buddha or Karl Marx
  10. Constitution and Constitutionalism

 

Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar: Writings and Speeches

The Education Department, the Government of Maharashtra has plans to publish the entire writings of Ambedkar, under the guidance of a committee established for the purpose in 1976. As of 2018, 22 volumes. titled Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar: Writings and Speeches (BAWS), have been published in the English language, comprising over 15,000 pages. The first volume of this scheme was published on 14 April 1979 on the birth anniversary of Ambedkar. In these 22 volumes, volume 14 is divided into two parts, volume 17 in three parts, volume 18 in three parts, and reference books 2, i.e. a total of 29 books are published. Since 1987, work has been in progress to translate BAWS into Marathi and there are also official Hindi translations available for a part of the set.

  • Castes in India: Their Mechanism, Genesis and Development, and 11 Other Essays
  • Ambedkar in the Bombay Legislature, with the Simon Commission and at the Round Table Conferences, 1927–1939
  • Philosophy of Hinduism; India and the Pre-requisites of Communism; Revolution and Counter-revolution; Buddha or Karl Marx
  • Riddles in Hinduism
  • Essays on Untouchables and Untouchability
  • The Evolution of Provincial Finance in British India
  • The Untouchables: Who Were They? And Why They Became Untouchables (New Delhi: Amrit Book Co, [1948])
  • Annihilation of Caste (1936)
  • Pakistan or the Partition of India
  • What Congress and Gandhi have done to the Untouchables; Mr. Gandhi and the Emancipation of the Untouchables
  • Ambedkar as the member of the Governor General’s Executive Council, 1942–46
  • The Buddha and his Dhamma
  • Unpublished Writings; Ancient Indian Commerce; Notes on laws; Waiting for a Visa ; Miscellaneous notes, etc.
  • Ambedkar as the principal architect of the Constitution of India
  • (2 parts) Dr. Ambedkar and The Hindu Code Bill
  • Ambedkar as Free India’s First Law Minister and Member of Opposition in Indian Parliament (1947–1956)
  • The Pali Grammar
  • Ambedkar and his Egalitarian Revolution – Struggle for Human Rights. Events starting from March 1927 to 17 November 1956 in the chronological order; Ambedkar and his Egalitarian Revolution – Socio-political and religious activities. Events starting from November 1929 to 8 May 1956 in the chronological order; Ambedkar and his Egalitarian Revolution – Speeches. (Events starting from 1 January to 20 November 1956 in the chronological order.)
  • Ambedkar’s Speeches and writing in Marathi
  • Ambedkar’s Photo Album and Correspondence

Annihilation of Caste

Annihilation of Caste is an undelivered speech written in 1936 by B. R. Ambedkar who fought against the country’s practice of untouchability.[1] It was later self-published by the author.

Cover of the first edition of Annihilation of Caste
Author B. R. Ambedkar
Country India
Publication date
1936

Background:

In a letter dated 12 December 1935, the secretary of the Jat-Pat Todak Mandal (Society for the Abolition of Caste system), an anti-caste Hindu reformist group organization based in Lahore, invited B. R. Ambedkar to deliver a speech on the caste system in India at their annual conference in 1936. Ambedkar wrote the speech as an essay under the title “Annihilation of Caste” and sent in advance to the organizers in Lahore for printing and distribution. The organizers found some of the content to be objectionable towards the orthodox Hindu religion, so intemperate in the idiom and vocabulary used, and so incendiary in promoting conversion away from Hinduism, that they sought the deletion of large sections of the more controversial content endangering Brahmanical interests. They wrote to Ambedkar seeking the removal of sections which they found, in their words, “unbearable.”. Ambedkar declared in response that he “would not change a comma” of his text. After much deliberation, the committee of organizers decided to cancel their annual conference in its entirety, because they feared violence by orthodox Hindus at the venue if they held the event after withdrawing the invitation to him. Ambedkar subsequently published 1500 copies of the speech as a book on 15 May 1936 at his own expense as Jat-Pat Todak Mandal failed to fulfill their word.

In the essay, Ambedkar criticized the Hindu religion, its caste system, and its religious texts which are male dominant and spreading hatred and suppression of female interests. He argued that inter-caste dining and inter-caste marriage is not sufficient to annihilate the caste system, but that “the real method of breaking up the Caste System was… to destroy the religious notions upon which caste is founded”

In the second edition of his book, Ambedkar replied to Gandhi’s comments. This edition was published in 1937 as Annihilation of Caste: With a Reply to Mahatma Gandhi. He published a third edition in 1944; it included another essay, “Castes in India: Their Mechanism, Genesis and Development”, which had been presented at a seminar in New York in 1916.

In 2014, an annotated edition was released by Navayana, a New Delhi-based publishing house, with an introduction by Arundhati Roy titled “The Doctor and the Saint”.

Annihilation of Caste was translated into Tamil with the help of Periyar and published in 1937. Segments were continuously published in the rationalist Tamil magazine Kudi Arasu.

Gandhi’s criticism:

In July 1936, Mahatma Gandhi wrote articles under the title “A Vindication Of Caste” in his weekly journal (Harijans ) in which he commented on Ambedkar’s address:

The readers will recall the fact that Dr. Ambedkar was to have presided last May at the annual conference of the Jat-Pat-Todak Mandal of Lahore. But the conference itself was cancelled because Dr. Ambedkar’s address was found by the Reception Committee to be unacceptable. How far a Reception Committee is justified in rejecting a President of its choice because of his address that may be objectionable to it is open to question. The Committee knew Dr. Ambedkar’s views on caste and the Hindu scriptures. They knew also that he had in unequivocal terms decided to give up Hinduism. Nothing less than the address that Dr. Ambedkar had prepared was to be expected from him. The committee appears to have deprived the public of an opportunity of listening to the original views of a man, who has carved out for himself a unique position in society. Whatever label he wears in future, Dr. Ambedkar is not the man to allow himself to be forgotten.

 

 

Ambedkar family:

Ramabai Ambedkar

Ramabai_Ambedkar_-_wife_of_Dr._Babasaheb_Ambedkar.jpg (226×320)

Dr. Savita Ambedkar

File:Dr. Savita Ambedkar.jpg

Family tree:

Members Ramji Maloji Sakpal (father)
Bhimabai Ramji Sakpal (mother)
Balaram Ramji Ambedkar (brother)
Gangabai Lakgawadekar (sister)
Ramabai Malvanakar (sister)
Anandrao Ramji Ambedkar (brother)
Manjulabai Yesu Pandirkar (sister)
Tulsabai Dharma Kantekar (sister)
Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar
Ramabai Bhimrao Ambedkar(wife)
Savita Bhimrao Ambedkar (2nd wife)
Yashwant Bhimrao Ambedkar (son)
Meerabai Yashwant Ambedkar (wife of son)
Connected members Prakash Ambedkar (grandson)
Anjali Prakash Ambedkar (wife of grandson)
Ramabai Anand Teltumbde(granddaughter)
Bhimrao Yashwant Ambedkar (grandson)
Darshana Bhimrao Ambedkar (wife of grandson)
Anandraj Ambedkar (grandson)
Manisha Anandraj Ambedkar (wife of grandson)
Sujat Prakash Ambedkar (great-grandson)
Prachi Anandrao Teltumbde (great-granddaughter)
Rashmi Anandrao Teltumbde (great-granddaughter)
Hrichita Bhimrao Ambedkar (great-granddaughter)
Sahil Anandraj Ambedkar (great-grandson)
Aman Anandraj Ambedkar (great-grandson)
Distinctions Father of the modern India, Father of Indian Constitution, Champion of human rights
Traditions Buddhism

10 facts that you may not have known about him. They will help you see Baba Saheb’s legacy in a new light!

1. Ambedkar’s original name was actually Ambavadekar.

 

Ambedkar original surname was Ambavadekar (derived from the name of his native village ‘Ambavade’ in Ratnagiri district of Maharashtra). It was his teacher, Mahadev Ambedkar who changed his surname from ‘Ambavadekar’ to his own surname ‘Ambedkar’ in school records as he was very fond of him.

2. Ambedkar was the first Indian to pursue a doctorate in economics abroad.

Not only in Ambedkar the first Indian to pursue an Economics doctorate degree abroad, he is also the first Ph.D in Economics and the first double doctorate holder in Economics in South Asia. He was also among the highest educated Indians of his generation.

During his three years at Columbia University, Ambedkar took twenty-nine courses in economics, eleven in history, six in sociology, five in philosophy, four in anthropology, three in politics and one each in elementary French and German!

3. Ambedkar played a key role in the establishment of Reserve Bank of India in 1935.

Reserve Bank of India was conceptualized according to the guidelines presented by Ambedkar to the Hilton Young Commission (also known as Royal Commission on Indian Currency and Finance) in his book, The Problem of the Rupee – Its Origin and Its Solution.

Ambedkar also knew that the problem of the rupee is eventually linked to the problem of domestic inflation. In the preface to the book version of his thesis, he pointed out: “…nothing will stabilize the rupee unless we stabilize its general purchasing power”.

4. The Mahad Satyagraha of 1927 was Ambedkar’s first important crusade.

The Mahad satyagraha of 1927 was one of the defining moments in Ambedkar’s political thought and action. Held in the small town of Mahad in Maharashtra, this satyagraha was held three years prior to Gandhi’s Dandi march. While salt was at the center of Gandhi’s campaign, drinking water was at the core of Ambedkar’s crusade.

By leading a group of Dalits to drink water from Chavadar lake in Mahad, Ambedkar didn’t just assert the right of Dalits to take water from public water sources, he sowed the seeds of Dalit emancipation. In his famous quote, he said,

“We are not going to the Chavadar Tank to merely drink its water. We are going to the tank to assert that we too are human beings like others. It must be clear that this meeting has been called to set up the norm of equality.”

5. Ambedkar changed the working hours in India from 14 hours to 8 hours.

As the member for labor in the viceroy’s council from 1942 to 1946, Dr. Ambedkar was instrumental in bringing about several labor reforms. He changed the working hours from 12 hours to 8 hours in the 7th session of Indian Labour Conference in New Delhi in November 1942.

He also introduced several measures for workers like dearness allowance, leave benefit, employee insurance, medical leave, equal pay for equal work, minimum wages and periodic revision of scale of pay. He also strengthened trade unions and established employment exchanges across India.

6. Ambedkar’s autobiography is used as a textbook in the Columbia University.

A 20-page autobiographical story written by Ambedkar in 1935-36 (after his return from America and Europe), Waiting for a Visa is a book that draws from his experiences with untouchability, starting from his childhood. The book is used as a textbook in Columbia University.

7. Ambedkar had opposed Article 370 of the Indian constitution

With members of the Drafting Committee

Ambedkar refused to draft Article 370 of the constitution (which gives special status to the state of Jammu & Kashmir) on the grounds that it was discriminatory and against the principles of unity and integrity of the nation. Article 370 was eventually drafted by Gopalswamy Ayyangar, former Diwan to Maharajah Hari Singh of Jammu and Kashmir.

8. Ambedkar fought for three years to get the comprehensive Hindu Code Bill passed which gave several important rights to women.

Ambedkar resigned from his post of the first law minister of India when the comprehensive Hindu Code Bill was dropped by the Indian parliament. The bill had two main purposes – first, to elevate the social status of Hindu women by giving them their due rights and second, to abrogate social disparities and caste inequalities.

Some of the key features of this bill were:

  • Women could now inherit family property, permitting divorce and adoption of girls
  • The code gave both men and women the right to divorce if the marriage was untenable.
  • Widows and divorcees were given the right to remarry.
  • Polygamy was outlawed
  • Intercaste marriage and adoption of children of any caste would be permitted.

A staunch supporter of women’s rights, Ambedkar also said,

“I measure the progress of community by the degree of progress which women had achieved. Let every girl who marries stand by her husband, claim to be her husband’s friend and equal, and refuse to be his slave. I am sure if you follow this advice, you will bring honour and glory to yourselves.”

9. Ambedkar was the first to suggest the division of Bihar and Madhya Pradesh

In his book (published in 1995), Thoughts on the Linguistic States, Ambedkar suggested splitting Madhya Pradesh and Bihar. A good 45 years after he originally wrote the book, the split finally came with the formation of Jharkhand out of Bihar and Chhattisgarh out of Madhya Pradesh in the year 2000.

On splitting one-language states, he wrote in the book: “The number of pieces into which a state with people speaking one language should be divided into should depend upon (1) the requirements of efficient administration, (2) the needs of the different areas, (3) the sentiments of the different areas, and (4) the proportion between the majority and minority.”

10. Ambedkar’s efforts were pioneering in the development of India’s national policy for water and electricity

Ambedkar handing over the final draft of the constitution to President Rajendra Prasad on November 26, 1949

The pioneer of multipurpose river valley projects in India, Ambedkar initiated the Damodar Valley project, the Bhakra Nangal Dam project, the Son River Valley project and Hirakud dam project. He also established the Central Water Commission to facilitate the development of irrigation projects at both the Central and the state level.

To spark the development of India’s power sector, Ambedkar also established the Central Technical Power Board (CTPB) and Central Electricity Authority to explore the potential of and establish hydel and thermal power stations. He also emphasized on the need for a grid system (which India still relies on) and well-trained electrical engineers in India.


 

10 LINES ON Dr. B.R. AMBEDKAR

B.R. Ambedkar or Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar was an economist, social reformer and a politician. Throughout his life, he fought for the rights of untouchables, and rose from a poor child to many prominent positions in the Indian government, through his hard work and principles. He is considered as the chief architect on the Indian constitution who played an important role in framing it.

He was the first law minister of Independent India and a recipient of Bharat Ratna, the highest civilian award of India. He was one of the prominent personalities in fighting untouchability and upliftment of the backward class.

Ten Lines on B.R. Ambedkar in English

The following 10 Lines on B.R. Ambedkar cater to anyone looking for some important points about Father of the Indian Constitution. If you are preparing an essay or going to deliver a speech on the occasion of Republic Day or Ambedkar Jayanti then these lines will definitely come handy.

You can use them in making your essay or speech more effective and inspiring and getting accolades from your teachers. Please go through the below lines and incorporate them into your writing:

10 Lines on B. R. Ambedkar – 1

1) B.R. Ambedkar was born on April 14, 1981, in Mhow in Central Province. (Madhya Pradesh)

2) B.R. Ambedkar was also called” Babasaheb” by his supporters.

3) Fought for the equality of untouchables.

4) Graduated in Economics and Political Science from Bombay University in 1912.

5) Ph.D. in Economics in 1927 from London.

6) He joined Sydenham College of Commerce and Economics, Mumbai as a professor of Political Economy in 1918.

7) Burned Manusmriti on 25th December 1927 at Mumbai.

8) He was instrumental during the Poona Pact.

9) He was the chairman of the Constitution drafting committee.

10) He was independent India’s first law minister.


We have provided an additional set of 10 lines on the topic so that you can include more points in your essays and speeches and make them look more appealing and inspiring. These lines will also help you with your exams or paragraph recitation in your classes.

Please go through the below lines and enhance your writing:

10 Lines on B. R. Ambedkar – 2

1) B.R. Ambedkar was born on 14th April 1891 in Mhow, Madhya Pradesh.

2) He cleared matriculation from the Elphinstone High School in 1908.

3) Studied Economics from Columbia University, New York.

4) Awarded Doctorate degree in Economics by the University of Columbia on 8th June 1927.

5) He was one of the crusaders of caste discrimination and untouchability.

6) Launched a newspaper called ‘Mooknayaka’ in 1920.

7) He was appointed as the first Law Minister of independent India.

8) He was made the chairman of the constitutional drafting committee and considered as the chief architect of the Indian constitution.

9) He was awarded the prestigious Bharat Ratna award in 1990.

10) He died on 06th December 1956 at his home in Delhi.

Dr. B.R. Ambedkar was an inspiration & GOD for the millions of Indians facing untouchability. Something which he still does. His fight for the depressed classes and his contribution in drafting the constitution of Independent India will always be remembered.


 

          BHIMRAO AMBEDKAR ESSAY

Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar is the Hero of our nation and an Inspiration for millions. He transformed his life, from being a victim of untouchability in childhood to become the highest educated Indian civilian of his times and the architect of the Indian constitution. Bhimrao Ambedkar’s contribution to design the constitution of India is honorable. He spent his life to fight for the justice, equality, and rights of the backward classes.

LONG AND SHORT ESSAY ON BHIMRAO AMBEDKAR IN ENGLISH

Here are essays on Bhimrao Ambedkar of varying lengths to help you with the topic in your exam. You can select any Bhimrao Ambedkar essay as per your need:

BHIMRAO AMBEDKAR ESSAY 1 (200 WORDS)

Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar, popularly known as Babasaheb Ambedkar, was the founding father of Modern India. He is the role model for every Indian. Despite all the social and economic drawbacks Babasaheb Ambedkar went on to become the architect of the Indian Constitution.

Although in his early life he was the victim of caste discrimination and untouchability, he fought for his rights and struggled to achieve the heights of success and also became the voice of several victims of caste discrimination and untouchability. He stood for the rights of marginalized communities including women. He was the spokesperson of untouchables and other backward caste people. He was the defender of the exploited people and made persistent efforts for the emancipation of equality from the bonds of caste and religious barriers.

He was the modern Indian civilian who played an important role in the overall development and well-being of the people. He also realized the importance of education and influenced the backward classes to get educated and protest against social evils. He was a jurist, politician, economist, humanitarian, writer, philosopher, and above all a social reformer. He was the first law minister of Independent India. He is a legendary personality in Indian History and a true hero of our nation.


 

BHIMRAO AMBEDKAR ESSAY 2 (300 WORDS)

Introduction

Babasaheb Ambedkar’s interest was mainly in the social and political Rights of Dalits and other lower castes. He was the Dalit leader post-independence period of India. He was the representative of Untouchables.

B.R. Ambedkar’s Conversion to Buddhism

Dalit Buddhist movement is a movement by Dalits led by Babasaheb Ambedkar in India. It profoundly re-interpreted Buddhism and started a school of Buddhism called Navayana. The movement is socially and politically connected to and drawn from Buddhism. Ambedkar launched the movement in 1956 when nearly half a million Dalits joined him and converted to Navayana Buddhism.

 

They collectively refused to follow Hinduism and contested caste system. Rights of Dalit communities were promoted. The movement also refused to follow the ideas of traditional, Theravada, Vajrayana, Mahayana which are the sects of Buddhism. The new form of Buddhism taught by Babasaheb Ambedkar was pursued. It reinterpreted the Buddha’s religion in terms of social equality and class struggle.

After publishing several articles and books stating that Buddhism was the only way for Dalits to gain equality, on 14th October 1956 Ambedkar adopted Buddhism with lakhs of his supporters in a simple ceremony at Deekshabhoomi, Nagpur, few weeks before his death. His conversion gave a new lens to the Dalits suffering caste system in India to view their Identity and redefine their place in the society.

His conversion was not impulsive. It was an inspiration for the country’s Dalit community to view life in a new way; it was an absolute rejection of Hinduism and the dominance it came to characterize for lower caste. He declared that he was born as a Hindu but would not die as one, at a conference held in Nashik. For him, Hinduism had failed to secure human rights and continued caste discrimination.

Conclusion

As per Babasaheb, Buddhism directed the man to the inward potentiality within the inner self and trained mind to act righteously. His decision was grounded on the firm belief that conversion could improve the social status of the so-called ‘Lower classes’ of the country.


 

BHIMRAO AMBEDKAR ESSAY 3 (400 WORDS)

Introduction

Dr. B.R. Ambedkar was a leading activist, economist, jurist, politician and social reformer who stood for the rights of Dalits and lower castes. He campaigned against social evils like untouchability and caste discrimination. He played the most important role in drafting the constitution of India. He was the first law minister of independent India and is rightly known as the architect of the Indian constitution.

Role of Dr. B.R. Ambedkar in Mahad Satyagraha

In the Indian caste system, untouchables were segregated from the Hindus. They were banned to use public water sources which were used by Hindus. Mahad Satyagraha was led by Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar on 20thMarch 1927. This was to permit untouchables to use public tank water in Mahad, Maharashtra, India. Ambedkar launched the Satyagraha for the rights of untouchables to use water in public places. The location Mahad was selected for the movement. Numerous people from the Dalit community came forward to participate in the movement.

 

Dr. B.R. Ambedkar struck a powerful blow against the Hindu Caste system. He stated that the march to chavadar tank was not to merely drink water from it but the meeting was called to set up the norms of equality. He also mentioned Dalit women during Satyagraha and appealed to them to abandon all the old customs and wear saris like high caste Indian women. After Ambedkar’s speech at Mahad, Dalit women were influenced to drape their saris like upper-class women. Higher class women like Indirabia Chitre and Lakshmibai Tipnis helped these Dalit women to drape the saree like high-class women.

Trouble roused when the rumors were spread that the untouchables would be entering the Vishweshwara Temple to pollute it. Riots up surged from upper caste mobs beating up untouchables and ransacking their homes. A puja was performed by Hindus to purify the tank water arguing that the Dalits had polluted the water.

The second conference was decided to be held by Babasaheb Ambedkar in Mahad on 25th December 1927. But a case was filed against him by Hindus that tank was private property. Thus, the Satyagraha movement was not continued as the case was sub judice. Bombay High Court ruled that untouchables have the right to use tank water in December 1937.

Conclusion

Thus, Babasaheb Ambedkar always stood for the equality of Untouchables and other lower castes. He fought for the rights of Dalits. He was an activist and demanded social equality and justice.


 

BHIMRAO AMBEDKAR ESSAY 4 (500 WORDS)

Introduction

Bhimrao Ambedkar is popularly known as Babasaheb Ambedkar. He was an Indian economist, jurist, politician, writer, philosopher, and social reformer. He is also popular as the Father of the Nation. He was the leading activist and his efforts to eliminate social evils like caste restrictions and untouchability was remarkable.

He fought for the rights of socially backward classes and Dalits throughout his life. He was employed as India’s first law minister in the Cabinet of Jawaharlal Nehru. In 1990 Bharat Ratna award was declared on his name, unfortunately when he was no more.

Early Life of Bhimrao Ambedkar

Bhimrao Ambedkar was the son of Bhimabai and Ramji born on 14th April 1891 in Mhow Army cantonment, central provinces MP. His father was a subedar in the Indian army. His family moved to Satara after his father’s retirement in 1894. Shortly after, his mother passed away and the children were looked after by their aunt. Baba Saheb Ambedkar his two brothers Balarama and Anand Rao and two sisters Manjula and Tulasa survived. And out of all the children, only Ambedkar went to higher school. Four years later after his mother passed away, his father married again and the family moved to Bombay. At the age of 15, he married to Ramabai.

He was born in the poor Dalit Caste family and his family was regarded as untouchable by the upper-class families. All through his childhood, he faced the humiliation of caste discrimination. Babasaheb Ambedkar’s ancestors had served long for the army and his father worked in the British East Indian Army. Though the untouchables attended schools they were given little consideration by the teachers.

They had to sit outside the class and were segregated from that of Brahmins and privileged society. Even when they needed to drink water, someone from the upper class would pour water from a height as they were not allowed to touch water and the vessel that contained it. The peon used to pour water for Babasaheb Ambedkar. He described this in his writings ‘No peon No water’. The humiliation terrified Ambedkar at the Army School. Everywhere he had to face this segregation and humiliation in the society.

Education: Bhimrao Ambedkar

He was the only Untouchable who joined Elphinstone High School in Mumbai. He was enrolled to the Elphinstone College in 1908 after passing his matriculation exam. His success was a reason to celebrate for untouchables as he was the first one to do so. He acquired his degree in economics and political science in 1912 from Bombay University. He received a Baroda State Scholarship under the scheme established by Sayajirao Gaekwad and enrolled at Columbia University in New York to study Economics.

In June 1915 he received his Master’s degree majors in economics and other subjects as history, sociology, philosophy, and politics. In 1916 he joined London School of Economics and worked on his thesis; “The problem of the rupee: its origin and solution”. In 1920 he went to England. He received the Doctorates degree by London University. In 1927 he obtained his Ph.D. in economics.

Conclusion

In spite of his childhood hardships and poverty, Dr. B.R Ambedkar with his efforts and dedication went on to become the highest educated Indian of his generation. He was the first Indian to receive a Doctorate Degree in Economics abroad.


 

BHIMRAO AMBEDKAR ESSAY 5 (600 WORDS)

Introduction

After India’s independence government invited B.R. Ambedkar to serve as Independent India’s first Law Minister. He was appointed to write a new constitution of India and as the chairman of the Constitution Drafting Committee. As a chairman of the Drafting committee, his role as an architect of the constitution was crucial. The constitution drafted by Dr. Ambedkar was the first social document. Majority of the Constitutional provisions by him aimed at social revolution or attempt to promote revolution by establishing conditions important for achieving the social revolution.

The provisions prepared by Ambedkar provided constitutional assurance and protection of civil liberties for citizens of India. This also included freedom of religion, prohibition of all forms of discriminations and the abolition of untouchability. Ambedkar also advocated for the economic and social rights of women. He was successful in introducing a system of reservations of jobs in civil services, colleges and schools for the members of scheduled tribes, scheduled caste, and other backward classes.

Bhimarao Ambedkar’s Role to Eradicate Caste Discrimination

Caste is a system in which distinction of status, duties, and rights of an individual is done on the basis of birth of an individual in a particular group. It is the rigid form of social inequality. Babasaheb Ambedkar was born in a poor family, low Mahar caste. His family was subjected to constant social and economic discrimination.

Being from Untouchable caste of Mahars he was a social outcast and was treated as untouchable. His teachers would not treat him well in the school and other children would not eat beside him. He had to sit outside the class and was segregated. He had to face this humiliation throughout his childhood. Later, he became the spokesperson of the backward castes and classes in India.

Due to the caste system, many social evils prevailed in the society. For Babasaheb Ambedkar, it was important to break the religious notion on which the caste system was based. According to him, the caste system was not just a division of labor but also the division of laborers. He believed in the unity of all the communities. After passing the Bar course in Gray’s Inn Babasaheb Ambedkar started his legal career. He used his skills in advocating the cases of caste discrimination. His victory in defending non-Brahmin leaders charging Brahmins established the base of his future battles.

Babasaheb Ambedkar initiated full-fledged movements for the rights of Dalits. He demanded that public water sources should be open to all the castes and the right for all the castes to enter temples. He condemned Hindu scriptures supporting discrimination.

Bhimarao Ambedkar chose to fight against caste discrimination that afflicted him throughout his life. He proposed the idea of a separate electoral system for untouchables and other disregarded communities. He projected the concept of reservations for Dalits and other outcasts. Poona Pact was signed in 1932 by Babasaheb Ambedkar and Pandit Madan Mohan Malvia, for the reservation of seats for untouchable classes in the provisional legislature, within the general electorate.

The notion of Poona pact was more seats to lower classes in return to their continuance of joint electorate. These classes were later defined as Scheduled Tribes and Scheduled Castes. In order to reach people and make them understand the negatives of social evils, he launched a Newspaper called Mooknayka (Leader of the silent).

Babasaheb Ambedkar also joined Mahatma Gandhi in the Harijan Movement that opposed the social injustice faced by backward caste people in India. Babasaheb Ambedkar and Mahatma Gandhi were the leading personalities who fought to eliminate Untouchability from India.

Conclusion

Thus Dr. B.R. Ambedkar fought throughout his life for justice and equality. He acted for the eradication of caste discrimination and inequality. He firmly believed in justice and equality and ensured that the constitution makes no discrimination based on religion and caste. He was the forefather of Republic India.

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SLOGANS ON DR. BHIMRAO AMBEDKAR

Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar also known as B.R. Ambedkar was born on 14th April 1891 in Mhow (now Dr. Ambedkar Nagar) in Madhya Pradesh. Dr. Ambedkar was an economist and a social reformer, who dedicated his life for the uplift of Indian untouchable (Dalit) community. Himself belonging to a backward class, he had faced the discrimination from a very early age and felt the pains of it.

He was the first untouchable to enter the prestigious Elphinstone College, Mumbai. The practice of untouchability was so deeply rooted during those times that his colleagues at Sydenham College of Commerce And Economics in Mumbai refused to share same water jug with him when he was working as a professor there. Such incidents only made him more resolved to fight the class discrimination which was prevalent in the Hindu religion.

He achieved one of the major milestones in his fight against untouchability when he successfully converted to Buddhism on 14th October 1956 along with half a million other Dalits at Deekshabhoomi in Nagpur Maharashtra.

He is credited for bringing many social and political reforms by organizing the untouchables throughout India. He fought against the discrimination as well as for the political and social rights of the untouchable community. He was also the Chairman of the Constitution Drafting Committee when India gained Independence and is known as the ‘Father of The Constitution of India’.

The Government of India and its people observe 14th April every year as Ambedkar Jayanti to remember and commemorate the efforts of B.R. Ambedkar towards the abolishment of untouchability and framing of the Constitution; giving us more united and stronger India. Dr. Ambedkar and his efforts are remembered and applauded across the offices and schools in India and people/students are pledged to abolish untouchability. Dr. Ambedkar has posthumously conferred the highest civilian honor of India- Bharat Ratna in 1990.

The father of the Indian Constitution breathed his last on 6th December 1956 at his home in Delhi. Since he had converted to Buddhism, his death is observed as Mahaparinirvana (Nirvana after death according to Buddhist philosophy) on 6th December every year.  On the day homage is paid to Dr. B.R. Ambedkar, throughout the country especially at Chaitya Bhumi (Dadar) in Shivaji Park Mumbai, which is his cremation ground. Millions visit Chaitya Bhumi every year during early December to pay homage to Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar.

SLOGANS ON B.R. AMBEDKAR IN ENGLISH

“Slogans” are the shortest and most effective way to express gratitude, emotion, respect, pay homage or even express sorrow. The information conveyed or an emotion illuminated by a full paragraph, can also be achieved only by an effectively written single line “Slogan”.  Therefore, I am writing down a few Slogans on Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar, Ambedkar Jayanti and Mahaparinirvan Divas, to encourage and inspire you to take on the path of righteousness and equality, as Babasaheb visioned.

 

UNIQUE AND CATCHY SLOGANS ON BHIMRAO AMBEDKAR

  1. Dr. Ambedkar is the father of the Indian Constitution.
  2. He resolved to fight against discrimination because he himself was discriminated.
  3. The man who spent his childhood in deprivation; grew up to give us the world’s greatest Constitution.
  4. He chose not to fight against the discriminators but instead the discrimination.
  5. From Dalit revolution to Indian Constitution- he was instrumental in the formation of the nation.
  6. He framed the Constitution with an objective to eradicate discrimination.
  7. So genius was his vision that he gave us an unbreakable Constitution.
  8. The constitution guarantees democracy saving us from autocracy.
  9. He had a vision for the rule of law and well knew the perils of lawlessness.
  10. We celebrate Ambedkar Jayanti to commemorate his fight for equality.
  11. Each year on 14 April the nation celebrates the birth of the chief architect of its Constitution.
  12. Mahaparinirvan Divas is the day when he departed, leaving millions broken hearted.
  13. The nation remembers his cause and mourns his loss.
  14. People gather to pay him respect; garland his statue and remember his virtue.
  15. Nation mourns the loss of its greatest champion of equality.
  16. Though he faced discrimination in life, but that didn’t make him strife.
  17. Don’t just garland his statues but also remember his virtue.
  18. Man is long dead but his virtue remains and forever will remain.
  19. Father of the Constitution and champion of equality; posthumously received Bharat Ratna in 1990.
  20. The man who framed the Constitution of India was also the first law minister of Independent India.
  21. Let us pledge to abolish class divide only then the nation will thrive.
  22. Babasaheb turned adversity into greatness; with self-discipline, stern resolve, and politeness.
  23. Though we know him as a reformist; the world also reveres him as a great economist.
  24. Babasaheb fought against discrimination by upper castes, but never with them.
  25. Babasaheb got strengthened from humiliations he faced in life.
  26. He is an inspiration for those who face untouchability and a lesson for those who practice it.
  27. We must pay tribute to him and not let his virtue dim.
  28. Today we stand united and famed, only because of the Constitution which he framed.
  29. Only a man with impartial vision could have framed such a balanced Constitution.
  30. He saved millions from untouchability by converting to Buddhism at Deekshabhoomi.
  31. The departed soul made millions gloomy; he was mournfully cremated at Chaitya Bhoomi.
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