Born: (October 2, 1869), Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi was born on October 2, 1869, at Porbandar, a small town on the western coast of India, which was then one of the many tiny states in Kathiawar. Gandhi was born in middle class family of Vishya caste. His father, Karamchand Gandhi, was a Dewan or Prime Minister of Porbandar. His mother, Putlibai, was a very religious lady.
Martyrdom: (January 30, 1948), Gandhiji worked ceaselessly to promote unity between Hindus and Muslims. This angered some Hindu fundamentalists and on January 30, 1948 Gandhiji was shot dead by one such fundamentalist Nathu Ram Godse while he was going for his evening prayers. The last words on the lips of Gandhiji were Hey Ram.
Achievements: Known as Father of Nation; played a key role in winning freedom for India; introduced the concept of Ahimsa and Satyagraha
1888-1891: Studied law in London
1893: Sailed for South Africa
1906: Began Satyagraha campaign in South Africa to protest the requirement that Indians be fingerprinted and carry identification cards
1915: Returned to India from South Africa
1917: Initiated Champaran Satyagraha to alleviate the condition of indigo planters
1919: Instituted Satyagraha campaign in India to protest the Rowlatt Acts, which deprived all Indians of important civil liberties.
1922: Ended Non-Cooperation movement against British Raj after his followers were involved in a series of riots and disturbances that violated his policy of nonviolence
1930: Led Dandi March to collect salt in protest of the British salt tax.
1931: Signed a pact with Lord Irwin to suspend the Civil Disobedience Movement and went to London to attend Round Table Conference.
1932: Fasted to protest the treatment of people who belonged to no Hindu caste, the Harijans or Untouchables
1942: Launched Quit India Movement against British Raj.
January 30, 1948: Assassinated by Nathuram Godse, a Hindu extremist.
Born: (July 23, 1856), BAL Gangadhar Tilak was born on July 23, 1856 in Ratnagiri, Maharashtra. He was a Chitpavan Brahmin by caste. His father Gangadhar Ramachandra
Died: (August 1, 1920), while fighting for people’s cause Bal Gangadhar Tilak died on August 1, 1920.
Achievements: Considered as Father of Indian National Movement; Founded “Deccan Education Society” to impart quality education to India’s youth; was a member of the Municipal Council of Pune, Bombay Legislature, and an elected ‘Fellow’ of the Bombay University; formed Home Rule League in 1916 to attain the goal of Swaraj.
Born: (September 27, 1907), Bhagat Singh was born in a Sikh family in village Banga in Layalpur district of Punjab (now in Pakistan). He was the third son of Sardar Kishan Singh and Vidyavati
Martyrdom: (March 23, 1931), Despite great popular pressure and numerous appeals by political leaders of India, Bhagat Singh and his associates were hanged in the early hours of March 23, 1931
Achievements: Gave a new direction to revolutionary movement in India, formed ‘Naujavan Bharat Sabha’ to spread the message of revolution in Punjab, formed ‘Hindustan Samajvadi Prajatantra Sangha’ along with Chandrasekhar Azad to establish a republic in India, assassinated police official Saunders to avenge the death of Lala Lajpat Rai, dropped bomb in Central Legislative Assembly along with Batukeshwar Dutt.
Dr. B.R. Ambedkar:
Born: (April 14, 1891), Dr.Bhimrao Ambedkar was born on April 14, 1891 in Mhow (presently in Madhya Pradesh). He was the fourteenth child of Ramji and Bhimabai Sakpal Ambavedkar. B.R. Ambedkar belonged to the “untouchable” Mahar Caste. His father and grandfather served in the British Army
Died: (December 6, 1956), On December 6, 1956, Baba Saheb Dr. B.R. Ambedkar died peacefully in his sleep.
Achievements: Dr. B.R. Ambedkar was elected as the chairman of the drafting committee that was constituted by the Constituent Assembly to draft a constitution for the independent India; he was the first Law Minister of India; conferred Bharat Ratna in 1990.
Born: (July 23, 1906), Chandra Shekhar Azad was born on July 23, 1906 in village Bhavra in Jhabua district of Madhya Pradesh. His parents were Pandit Sitaram Tiwari and Jagarani Devi.
Martyrdom: (February 27, 1931), Chandrasekhar Azad was a terror for British police. He was on their hit list and the British police badly wanted to capture him dead or alive. On February 27, 1931 Chandrasekhar Azad met two of his comrades at the Alfred Park Allah bad. He was betrayed by an informer who had informed the British police. The police surrounded the park and ordered Chandrasekhar Azad to surrender. Chandrasekhar Azad fought alone valiantly and killed three policemen. But finding himself surrounded and seeing no route for escape, Chandrasekhar Azad shot himself. Thus he kept his pledge of not being caught alive
Achievements: Involved in Kakori Train Robbery (1926), the attempt to blow up the Viceroy’s train (1926), and the shooting of Saunders at Lahore (1928) to avenge the killing of Lala Lajpatrai; formed Hindustan Socialist Republican Association with fellow compatriots Bhagat Singh, Sukhdev, and Rajguru
Born: (September 4, 1825), Dadabhai Naoroji was born in a poor Parsi family in Bombay on September 4, 1825. His father, Naoroji Palanji Dordi, died when Dadabhai Naoroji was only four years old.
Died: (June 30, 1917), He died at the age of 92 on June 30, 1917
Achievements: First Indian to become a professor of the college; instrumental in the establishment of the Indian National Congress; was President of the Indian National Congress thrice; the Congress’ demand for swaraj (self-rule) was first expressed publicly by him in his presidential address in 1906
Born: (May 9, 1866), Gopal Krishna Gokhale was born on May 9, 1866 in Kolhapur, Maharashtra. His father Krishna Rao was a farmer who was forced to work as clerk
Died: (February 19, 1915), Gopal Krishna Gokhale was a diabetic and asthmatic. Excessive assertion took its toll on Gokhale’s health and ultimately he died on February 19, 1915
Achievements: Political guru of Mahatma Gandhi; one of the pioneers of the Indian national movement; founder of the Servants of India Society
Born 😦 November 14, 1889), Jawaharlal Lal Nehru was born on November 14, 1889. His father Motilal Nehru was a famous Allahabad based barrister. Jawaharlal Nehru’s mother’s name was Swaroop Rani. Jawaharlal Nehru was the only son
Died: (May 27, 1964), Jawaharlal Nehru died of a heart attack on May 27, 1964.
Achievements: Took active part in Non-Cooperation Movement; elected President of the Allahabad Municipal Corporation in 1924, and served for two years as the city’s chief executive; Presided over Congress’ annual session in Lahore in 1929 and passed a resolution demanding India’s independence; elected as Congress President in 1936, 1937, and 1946; became first Prime Minister of independent India; was one of the main architects of Non Aligned Movement
Born: (January 28, 1865), Lala Lajpat Rai was born on January 28, 1865 in village Dhudike, in present day Moga district of Punjab. He was the eldest son of Munshi Radha Kishan Azad and Gulab Devi. His father was an Aggarwal Bania by caste.
Martyrdom 😦 November17, 1928), British Government brutally lath charged the procession. Lala Lajpat Rai received severe head injuries and died on November17, 1928.
Achievements: Popularly known as Lala Lajpat Rai; Founded the Indian Home League Society of America; became Congress President in 1920. Lala Lajpat Rai was one of the foremost leaders who fought against British rule in India. He was popularly known as Punjab Kesari (Lion of the Punjab).
Born: (October 2, 1904), Lal Bahadur Shastri was born on October 2, 1904 at Mughalsarai, Uttar Pradesh. His parents were Sharada Prasad and Ramdulari Devi. Lal Bahadur’s surname was Srivastava
Died: (January 10, 1966), under the treaty India agreed to return to Pakistan all the territories occupied by it during the war. The joint declaration was signed on January 10, 1966 and Lal Bahadur Shastri died of heart attack on the same night.
Achievements: Played a leading role in Indian freedom struggle; became Parliamentary Secretary of Pandit Govind Vallabh Pant, the then chief minister of Uttar Pradesh; became the Minister of Police and Transport in Pant’s Cabinet; appointed as the Railways and Transport Minister in the Central Cabinet; also held the portfolios of Transport & Communications, Commerce and Industry, and Home Ministry in the Central cabinet; became Prime Minister of India in 1964; led India to victory over Pakistan in 1965 war.Lal Bahadur Shastri was the second Prime Minister of independent India.
Born: (November 11, 1888), Maulana Abul Kalam Azad was born on November 11, 1888 in Mecca. His forefather’s came from Herat (a city in Afghanistan) in Babar’s days.
Died: (February 22, 1958), Maulana Abul Kalam Azad served as the Minister of Education in Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru’s cabinet from 1947 to 1958. He died of a Heart stroke on February 22, 1958.
Achievements: Started a weekly journal Al Hilal to increase the revolutionary recruits amongst the Muslims; elected as Congress President in 1923 and 1940; became independent India‘s first education minister. Maulana Abul Kalam Azad’s real name was Abul Kalam Ghulam Muhiyuddin.
Born: (May 6, 1861), Motilal Nehru was born on May 6, 1861 in Delhi in a Kashmiri Brahmin family. His father was Gangadhar and his mother was Jeevarani. Motilal Nehru’s father died before Motilal was born. Moti Lal Nehru was brought up by his elder brother Nandalal who was a junior lawyer in Allahabad.
Died: (February 6, 1931), Motilal Nehru was arrested in 1930, in the wake of Civil Disobedience Movement. He was released in 1931, in view of his deteriorating health. Motilal Nehru passed away on February 6, 1931 in Lucknow.
Achievements: Elected as Congress President twice; formed Swaraj Party and was Leader of the Opposition in the Central Legislative Assembly; prepared a draft Constitution for India. He was one of the most brilliant lawyers of the pre-independence India. He was elected as Congress President twice and is famous as the father of India’s first Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru. He was affectionately called as Pandit Motilal Nehru.
Born: (December 3, 1884), Dr. Rajendra Prasad was born on December 3, 1884 in Ziradei village in Siwan district of Bihar. His father’s name was Mahadev Sahay and his mother’s name was Kamleshwari Devi.
Died: (February 28, 1963), in 1962, after 12 years as President, Dr. Rajendra Prasad retired. Dr. Rajendra Prasad died on February 28, 1963.
Achievements: First President of independent India; President of the Constituent Assembly; President of Congress in 1943 and 1939. He had also served as a Cabinet Minister briefly in the first Government of independent India. Dr. Rajendra Prasad was one of the foremost disciples of Gandhiji and he played a crucial role in Indian freedom struggle. And was subsequently awarded the Bharat Ratna, the nation’s highest civilian award.
Born: (October 31, 1875), Vallabhbhai Patel was born on October 31, 1875 in Nadiad, a small village in Gujarat. His father Jhaverbhai was a farmer and mother Laad Bai was a simple lady.
Died: (December 15, 1950), Sardar Patel died of cardiac arrest on December 15, 1950.
Achievements: Successfully led Kheda Satyagraha and Bardoli revolt against British government; elected Ahmadabad’s municipal president in 1922, 1924 and 1927; elected Congress President in 1931; was independent India’s first Deputy Prime Minister and Home Minister; played a key role in political integration of India; conferred Bharat Ratna in 1991. Sardar Patel was popularly known as Iron Man of India.
Born: (January 23, 1897), Subhas Chandra Bose was born on January 23, 1897 in Cuttack, Orissa. His father Janaki Nath Bose was a famous lawyer and his mother Prabhavati Devi was a pious and religious lady. Subhas Chandra Bose was the ninth child among fourteen siblings.
Died: (August 18, 1945), Subhas Chandra Bose was reportedly killed in an air crash over Taipeh, Taiwan (Formosa) on August 18, 1945. Though it is widely believed that he was still alive after the air crash not much information could be found about him.
Achievements: Passed Indian Civil Services Exam; elected Congress President in 1938 and 1939; formed a new party All India Forward block; organized Azad Hind Fauj to overthrow British Empire from India. Subhas Chandra Bose, affectionately called as Netaji, was one of the most prominent leaders of Indian freedom struggle. He founded Indian National Army (Azad Hind Fauj) to overthrow British Empire from India and came to acquire legendary status among Indian masses.
Born: (February 13, 1879), Sarojini Naidu was born on February 13, 1879. Her father Aghoranath Chattopadhyaya was a scientist and philosopher. He was the founder of the Nizam College, Hyderabad. Sarojini Naidu’s mother Barada Sundari Devi was a poetess and used to write poetry in Bengali. Sarojini Naidu was the eldest among the eight siblings
died: (March 2, 1949), After Independence, Sarojini Naidu became the Governor of Uttar Pradesh. She was India’s first woman governor. Sarojini Naidu died in office on March 2, 1949.
Achievements: She was the first Indian woman to become the President of the Indian National Congress and the first woman to become the governor of a state in India. Sarojini Naidu was a distinguished poet, renowned freedom fighter and one of the great orators of her time. She was famously known as Bharatiya Kokila (The Nightingale of India).
She was born to a Maharashtrian family at Kashi (now Varanasi) in the year 1828. During her childhood, she was called by the name Manikarnika. Affectionately, her family members called her Manu.
Rani Lakshmi Bai was the queen of the princely state of Jhansi, which is located on the northern side of India. She was one of the most leading personalities of the first war of India’s independence that started in 1857. In this article, we will present you with the biography of Rani Lakshmibai, who was an epitome of bravery and courage
Sucheta Kriplani was a great freedom fighter of India. She was born as Sucheta Mazumdar in the year 1908. She was the first woman to be elected as the Chief Minister of a state in India.
Sucheta Kriplani was born to a Bengali family in the Ambala city. Her father S.N. Majumdar was a nationalist of India. Sucheta took education from Indraprastha College and St.Stephen’s College in Delhi. After completing her studies, she took the job of a lecturer in the Banaras Hindu University. Sucheta worked in close association with Mahatma Gandhi during the time of partition riots. She went along with him to Noakhali in 1946. She took retirement from the politics and went into seclusion. This prominent personality died in the year 1974.
Born – 24 November 1880, He was born on 24 November 1880 at the Gundugolanu village and later went on to acquire a BA degree from the Madras Christian College.
Died – 1959
Achievements – He was a freedom fighter cum political person in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh during the pre-independence era. He was requested to stand for the presidency of the Indian National Congress as a candidate closest to the great Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi in 1939. Further, he was Madhya Pradesh governor from 1952 to 1957 and also set up the Andhra Bank atMachilipatnam in November 1923. He even successfully ran for the presidency of the Congress in the year 1948 with full support of Jawaharlal Nehru.
Born – (5 November 1870), He was born on 5 November 1870 and acquired his education from England. His career in law kicked off in the year 1909
Died – (16 June 1925),
Achievements – CR Das was an important personality in Bengal during the time of the non-cooperation movement from 1919 to 1922. It was he who started the boycott of British or western dresses. He was appointed the mayor of Calcutta Corporation after it was formed and also supervised the Gaya round of the Indian National Congress. Though a lawyer by profession, Chittaranjan Das or C.R. Das went on to play a very important role in Indian struggle for independence.
Born – Read on about the biography of Bipin Chandra Pal, who was born on 7 November 1858 into a wealthy Hindu family at Habiganj, which is now in Bangladesh.
Died – Pal died in the year 1932.
Achievements – With the other two members – Lala Lajpat Rai and Bal Gangadhar Tilak – from the Lal Bal Pal team, Bipin Chandra Pal doled out a number of extremist measures like boycotting goods made by British, burning Western clothes and lockouts in the British owned businesses and industrial concerns to get their message across to the foreign rulers of India
Bipin Chandra Pal was a teacher, journalist, orator, writer and librarian. But above all, he was the one of the three famous leaders called “Lal Bal Pal” who comprised the extremist wing of the Indian National Congress. It was these three leaders who started the first popular upsurge against British colonial policy in the 1905 partition of Bengal.
Born: (May 28, 1883), Veer Savarkar’s original name was Vinayak Damodar Savarkar. He was born on May 28, 1883 in the village of Bhagur near Nasik. He was one among four children born to Damodarpant Savarkar and Radhabai.
Died: (February 26, 1966), Veer Savarkar died on February 26, 1966 at the age of 83.
Achievements: Founded the Abhinav Bharat Society and Free India Society; brought out an authentic informative researched work on The Great Indian Revolt of 1857 called “The Indian War of Independence 1857” founded Hindu Mahasabha
Born – 10 December 1878
Died – 25 December 1972
Achievements – He was a very well-known lawyer, writer and statesman of India during the independence struggle. A prominent figure in the Indian National Congress, he was elected the second governor-general of India after its independence. Following this, Rajaji was made the chief minister of the Indian state of Madras
Born: (19 July 1827), He was born on 19 July 1827 in the Nagwa village in the Ballia district of the Uttar Pradesh state. There still exist families in this village who claim to the descendents of Mangal Pandey.
Martyrdom: (8 April 1857), His name got etched into the pages of the Indian history after he attacked his senior British officers in an incident, which is today called the Sepoy Mutiny of 1857 or the India’s First War of Independence. Due to this, he was later captured and hung till death on 8 April in 1857
Achievements: A sepoy working under the British East India Company, Mangal Pandey’s name got etched into the pages of the Indian history after he attacked his senior British officers in an incident, which is today remembered as the Sepoy Mutiny of 1857 or the India’s First War of Independence. The reason behind this was the rumor that the cartridges used by Indian sepoys were greased with the fat of cow and pig.
Born: (September 5, 1888), Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan was born on September 5, 1888 at Tirutani, Madras in a poor Brahmin family. As his father was poor Radhakrishnan supported most of his education through scholarships.
Died: (April 17, 1975), He retired as President in 1967 and settled in Madras. And died on April 17, 1975.
Achievements: First Vice President and second President of India. Placed Indian philosophy on world map. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan was first Vice President of India and second President of India. He was also a philosopher and introduced the thinking of western idealist philosophers into Indian thought. He was a famous teacher and his birthday is celebrated as Teacher’s Day in India.
The National Flag of India, also called the ‘Tiranga’, was adopted during an ad hoc meeting of the Constituent Assembly of the country. The meeting was held on the 22nd July 1947, twenty-four days prior to India’s independence from the British (which took place on 15th August 1947). Based on the flag of the Indian National Congress, which was designed by Pingali Venkayya, the flag is also the war flag Indian Army, hoisted daily on military installations. The heraldic description of Indian National Flag is Party per fess Saffron and Vert on a fess Argent a “Chakra” Azure
The preamble of the flag code of India describes the significance of the colors and the chakra in the ‘Tiranga’. It was amply described by Dr. S. Radhakrishnan in the Constituent Assembly that unanimously adopted the National Flag. Dr. S. Radhakrishnan explained.
“Bhagwa or the saffron colour denotes renunciation of disinterestedness. Our leaders must be indifferent to material gains and dedicate themselves to their work. The white in the centre is light, the path of truth to guide our conduct. The green shows our relation to soil, our relation to the plant life here on which all other life depends. The Ashoka Wheel in the center of the white is the wheel of the law of dharma. Truth or satya, dharma or virtue ought to be the controlling principles of those who work under this flag.
After 52 years, the citizens of India are free to fly the Indian National Flag over their homes, offices and factories on any day. On 26th January 2002, the flag code was changed, giving Indians the freedom to proudly display the national flag any where and any time. However, there are still some rules and regulations upon how to fly the flag, based on the 26th January 2002 legislation, which should be followed by the citizens. These rules and regulation includes certain dos and don’ts, which have been explained below.
- The National Flag may be hoisted in educational institutions (schools, colleges, sports camps, scout camps, etc.) to inspire respect for the Flag. An oath of allegiance has been included in the flag hoisting in schools.
- A member of public, a private organization or an educational institution may hoist/display the National Flag on all days and occasions, ceremonial or otherwise, consistent with the dignity and honor of the National Flag.
- Section 2 of the new code accepts the right of all private citizens to fly the flag on their premises.
- The flag cannot be used for communal gains, drapery, or clothes. As far as possible, it should be flown from sunrise to sunset, irrespective of the weather.
- The flag cannot be intentionally allowed to touch the ground or the floor or trail in water. It cannot be draped over the hood, top, and sides or back of vehicles, trains, boats or aircraft.
- No other flag or bunting can be placed higher than the flag. Also, no object, including flowers or garlands or emblems, can be placed on or above the flag. The tricolor cannot be used as a festoon, rosette or bunting.
Composed by Bankim Chandra Chatterji in Sanskrit, the song Vande Mataram was primarily conceived to serve as a motivation to the people in their freedom struggle. Though it was penned down in 1876, the first publication emerged in the year 1882 in ‘Anandamatha’ amidst doubts of a ban by the British Raj. Sharing an equal status with Jana-gana-mana (National Anthem of India), the song was first sung in the 1896 session of the Indian National Congress. Vande Mataram served as a voice against British rule during the freedom struggle. Initially, people with patriotic fervor flocked the streets of Calcutta and other metropolis, shouting the slogan ‘Vande Mataram’ or ‘Hail to the Mother (land)!
Terrified by the impending danger, British banned the expression of song and imprisoned freedom fighters, who disobeyed the command. Vande Mataram initially served as the National Anthem of India, but later Jana-gana-mana was adopted as the anthem of independent India. This was because the Muslim sect in India felt that the song was biased, as it depicted the nation as ‘Ma Durga’, a Hindu Goddess. Though Vande Mataram aptly illustrated the pre-independence national zeal and passion, it was espoused as the National Song of India. In the following lines, we have provided the wordings of the National Song of India and its English translation.
| National Song Of India
Koti koti kantha kalakalaninaada karaale
| Tumi vidyaa tumi dharma
tumi hR^idi tumi marma
tvaM hi praaNaaH shariire
Baahute tumi maa shakti
TvaM hi durgaa dashapraharaNadhaariNii
Namaami kamalaaM amalaaM atulaaM
ShyaamalaaM saralaaM susmitaaM bhuushhitaaM
National anthem can be described as a patriotic musical composition of a country, which reminds and praises the history, traditions and struggles of its people. At the same time, it has to be recognized as the official national song, either by the nation’s government or by convention through use by the people. The national anthem of India is ‘Jana-gana-mana’, composed originally in Bengali, by Rabindranath Tagore. It was adopted as the national anthem of India, in its Hindi version, by the Constituent Assembly, on 24th January 1950.
‘Jana-gana-mana’ was first sung on 27th December 1911, long before Indian gained independence, at the Calcutta Session of the Indian National Congress. The complete song consists of five stanzas. As for the playing time of the full version of the national anthem, it will take up approximately 52 seconds. A short version, consisting of first and last lines of the stanza (playing time approximately 20 seconds), is also played on certain occasions.
National Anthem in Hindi
Jana-gana-mana-adhinayaka, jaya he
Tava shubha name jage,
Tava shubha asisa mage,
Gahe tava jaya gatha,
Jana-gana-mangala-dayaka jaya he
Jaya he, jaya he, jaya he,
Jaya jaya jaya, jaya he!
CONSTITUTION OF INDIA
The Constitution of India was drafted by the Constituent Assembly. The Constituent Assembly held its first sitting on the 9th December, 1946. It reassembled on the 14th August, 1947, as the sovereign Constituent Assembly for the Dominion of India. The proposed Constitution had been outlined by various committees of the Assembly like
a) Union Constitution Committee
b) The Union Powers Committee
c) Committee on Fundamental Rights.
It was after a general discussion on the reports of these Committees that the Assembly appointed a Drafting Committee on the 29th August, 1947. The Drafting Committee, under the Chairmanship of Dr. Ambedkar, embodied the decision of the Assembly with alternative and additional proposals in the form of a ‘Draft Constitution of India which was published in February, 1948. The Constituent Assembly next met in November, 1948, to consider the provisions of the Draft, clause by clause. After several sessions the consideration of the clauses or second reading was completed by the 17th October, 1949. The Constituent Assembly again sat on the 14th November, 1949, for the third reading and finished it on the 26th November, 1949, on which date the Constitution received the signature of the President of the Assembly and was declared as passed. The provisions relating to citizenship, elections, provisional Parliament, temporary and transitional provisions, were given immediate effect, i.e., from November 26, 1949. The rest of the Constitution came into force on the 26th January, 1950, and this date is referred to in the Constitution as the Date of its
Preamble: WE, THE PEOPLE OF INDIA, are having solemnly resolved to constitute India into a SOVEREIGN SOCIALIST SECULAR DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC…
Fundamental Rights: Indian Government has provided six basic rights to every citizen India. So, as to provide a democratic environment for the people of India to live in. Here, we are describing each fundamental right in detail to help you in understanding our constitution.
Fundamental Duties: These Fundamental rights have been provided at the cost of some fundamental duties. These are considered as the duties that must be and should be performed by every citizen of India.
Official And Regional Languages Of INDIA: Subject to the provisions of articles 346 and 347, the Legislature of a State may by law adopt any one or more of the languages in use in the State or Hindi as the language or languages to be used for all or any of the official purposes…
PREAMBLE OF INDIA
WE, THE PEOPLE OF INDIA, having solemnly resolved to constitute India into a SOVEREIGN SOCIALIST SECULAR DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC and to secure to all its citizens:
JUSTICE, social, economic and political;
LIBERTY of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship;
EQUALITY of status and of opportunity;
and to promote among them all
FRATERNITY assuring the dignity of the individual and the unity and integrity of the Nation;
IN OUR CONSTITUENT ASSEMBLY this twenty-sixth day of November, 1949, do HEREBY ADOPT, ENACT AND GIVE TO OURSELVES THIS CONSTITUTION.
Purpose of Having a Preamble:
The Preamble to our Constitution serves two purposes: –
A) It indicates the source from which the Constitution derives its authority;
B) It also states the objects, which the Constitution seeks to establish and promote.
The Preamble seeks to establish what Mahatma Gandhi described as The India of my Dreams, “…an India in which the poorest shall feel that it is their country in whose making they have an effective voice; …an India in which all communities shall leave I perfect harmony. There can be no room in such an India for the curse of untouchability or the curse of Intoxicating drinks and drugs. Woman will enjoy as the same rights as man.”
Indian Fundamental Rights
The Fundamental Rights embodied in the Indian constitution acts as a guarantee that all Indian citizens can and will lead their life’s in peace as long as they live in Indian democracy. These civil liberties take precedence over any other law of the land. They include individual rights common to most liberal democracies, such as equality before the law, freedom of speech and expression, freedom of association and peaceful assembly, freedom of religion, and the right to constitutional remedies for the protection of civil rights such as habeas corpus.
In addition, the Fundamental Rights for Indians are aimed at overturning the inequities of past social practices. They have also been used to in successfully abolishing the “untouchability”; prohibit discrimination on the grounds of religion, race, caste, sex, or place of birth; and forbid trafficking in human beings and also the forced labor. They go beyond conventional civil liberties in protecting cultural and educational rights of minorities by ensuring that minorities may preserve their distinctive languages and establish and administer their own education institutions.
Originally, the right to property was also included in the Fundamental Rights; however, the Forty-fourth Amendment, passed in 1978, revised the status of property rights by stating that “No person shall be deprived of his property save by authority of law.” Freedom of speech and expression, generally interpreted to include freedom of the press, can be limited “in the interests of the sovereignty and integrity of India, the security of the State, friendly relations with foreign States, public order, decency or morality, or in relation to contempt of court, defamation or incitement to an offence”
Here we have defined the six fundamental rights as per the constitution of India:-
- Right to Equality.
- Right to Particular Freedom
- Cultural and Educational Rights.
- Right to Freedom and Religion
- Right Against Exploitation and
- Right to Constitutional Remedies.
These Fundamental rights have been provided at the cost of some fundamental duties. These are considered as the duties that must be and should be performed by every citizen of India. These fundamental duties are defined as
It shall be the duty of every citizens of India: –
- To abide by the Constitution and respect its ideals and institutions, the National Flag and the National Anthem;
- To cherish and follow the noble ideals which inspired our national struggle for freedom;
- To uphold and protect the sovereignty, unity and integrity of India;
- To defend the country and render national service when called upon to do so;
- To promote harmony and the spirit of common brotherhood amongst all the people of India transcending religious, linguistic and regional or sectional diversities; to renounce practices derogatory to the dignity of women;
- To value and preserve the rich heritage of our composite culture;
- To protect and improve the natural environment including forests, lakes, rivers and wild life, and to have compassion for living creatures;
- To develop the scientific temper, humanism and the spirit of inquiry and reform;
- To safeguard public property and to abjure violence;
- To strive towards excellence in all spheres of individual and collective activity so that the nation constantly rises to higher levels of Endeavour and achievement
National Language Of India
OFFICIAL LANGUAGE OF THE UNION
The part that describes the official language of the Indian democracy have to be written to promote a feeling of unity among Indian citizens. As we know that even today anywhere between 300 to 1,000 languages are spoken in India, this makes an integral part of the Indian constitution.
The official language of India shall be Hindi in Devanagari script. The form of numerals to be used for the official purposes of the Union shall be the international form of Indian numerals.
Notwithstanding anything in clause (1), for a period of fifteen years from the commencement of this Constitution, the English language shall continue to be used for all the official purposes of the Union for which it was being used immediately before such commencement: Provided that the President may, during the staid period, by order authorize the use of the Hindi language in addition to the English language and of the Devanagari form of numerals in addition to the international form of Indian numerals for any of the official purposes of the Union.
Notwithstanding anything in this article, Parliament may by law provide for the use, after the staid period of fifteen years, of-
The English language, or
The Devanagari form of numerals, for such purposes as may be specified in the law
Article 345. Official language or languages of a State:-
Subject to the provisions of articles 346 and 347, the Legislature of a State may by law adopt any one or more of the languages in use in the State or Hindi as the language or languages to be used for all or any of the official purposes of that State:
Provided that, until the Legislature of the State otherwise provides by law, the English language shall continue to be used for those official purposes within the State for which it was being used immediately before the commencement of this Constitution.
Article 346. Official language for communication between one State and another or between a State and the Union: –
The language for the time being authorized for use in the Union for official purposes shall be the official language for communication between one State and another State and between a State and the Union:
Provided that if two or more States agree that the Hindi language should be the official language for communication between such States, that language may be used for such communication.
Article 347. Special provision relating to language spoken by a section of the population of a State: –
On a demand being made in that behalf the President may, if he is satisfied that a substantial proportion of the population of a State desire the use of any language spoken by them to be recognised by that State, direct that such language shall also be officially recognized throughout that State or any part thereof for such purpose as he may specify.
National Animal of India
Tiger is scientifically known as Panthera Tigris. It is a member of the Felidae family and the largest of the four ‘big cats’ of the Panthera genus. On an average, a tiger is about 13 feet in length and 150 kilograms in weight. The pattern of dark vertical stripes that overlay near-white to reddish-orange fur is the distinct recognition of a tiger. By nature, the tiger is a keen predator and carnivore. The Panthera Tigris is a native of the eastern and southern Asia. Known as Lord of Jungles due to its grace, agility, power and endurance, Tiger is also the national animal of India.
Choice of Tiger as National Animal
Tiger was chosen as the National animal of India due to its grace, strength, agility and enormous power. As the tiger is also considered as the king of Jungle, it was an obvious choice for the National Animal category. Since time immemorial, the tiger has been considered as a Royal Animal. Often, The Tiger as the National Animal of India symbolizes the power, strength, elegance, alertness, intelligence and endurance of the nation
Declining Population of Tiger
There is a steep fall in the population of tigers in the world. Due to illegal smuggling of Tiger Skin and other body parts, there are very few tigers left in the world today. According to the World Census of Tigers, there are only 5000 -7000 tigers in the world today. Out of which, Bangladesh, Nepal, Bhutan, China and Myanmar claim to have a population of 3000 to 4500 and India alone claims to have a population of 2500 to 3750. In India, out of the eight known races of the Panthera Tigris species, the Royal Bengal Tiger, is found throughout the country except in the north-western region.
Project Tiger in India
Due to the extreme threat of extinction of the tiger species from the country, the Indian Government launched Project Tiger in 1973. Project tiger was focused to preserve the remaining tiger population in the country and increase the breeding of the species so that new population could be added to the existing one. Under this Project, 23 tiger reserves were established throughout the country, covering an area of 33,406 sq. km for providing safe and comfortable shelter to the tigers in the natural environment. By 1993, there was much improvement in the tiger population in the country. However despite the increase in population, the population of tigers in the country is still not satisfactory compared to the effort and money put in the project. This is due to the illegal poaching of the tigers and negligence of authorities towards the alarming situation of the tiger population in the country.
National Bird of India
The Peacock, Pavo cristatus (Linnaeus), is the national bird of India. Emblematic of qualities such as beauty, grace, pride and mysticism, it is a multihued, swan-sized bird, with a fan-shaped crest of feathers, a white patch under the eye and a long, slender neck. Much in contrast to the natural phenomenon, the male specie of the bird is much more strikingly stunning than its female counterpart. The male bird, peacock, flaunts a gleaming blue breast and neck and a spectacular bronze-green train of around 200 elongated feathers. It is capable of extending its tail erect like fan as ostentatious display.
The elaborate courtship dance of the male, fanning out the tail and preening its feathers is a beautiful sight. On the other hand, the female bird, peahen, slightly smaller than its male counterpart. Brownish in color, the female bird also lacks the train visible in the male specie. Peacock is predominantly found in the Indian sub-continent, ranging from the south to east of the Indus river. Jammu and Kashmir, east Assam, south Mizoram and the whole of the Indian peninsula also is home to this impeccable bird. The bird lives in jungle lands near water and is thus, chiefly found in the wilds in India (sometimes, domesticated in villages as well).
Peacock is illustrated in pictures accompanying Indian Gods and Goddesses. The sacred bird of the India, the bird was once bred for food, but now hunting of peacocks is banned in India. It is protected not only by a religious sentiment, but also by parliamentary statute. Peacocks have been given full protection under the Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972. Apart from India, it is also involved to the cultures prevalent in Far East, Ancient Persia, Greek and Christian. While the figure of peacock features in various Islamic religious buildings, the bird is symbolic to ‘Resurrection of Christ’ in Christianity.
Coming back to Hinduism, peacock is portrayed as the image of the God of thunder, rains and war, Indra. People believe that, when a peacock extends its tail erect like fan for an enchanting and mesmerizing demonstration, it indicates that rainfall is on the cards. Though this might sound strange, but the fact is somewhat true. On seeing the dark clouds, peacock outspreads its tail and starts dancing in rhythmic fashion. Its dance movement has been incorporated in most of the Indian folklore, including Bharatha Natyam. In southern part of India, peacock is considered as a ‘vahana’ or vehicle of lord Muruga
Features of Peacock
The male specie, peacock, is characterized with a 2.12 m (7.3 ft) length, in full breeding plumage, and weighs about 5 kg (11 lbs). The female bird – peahen, on the other hand, is about 86 cm (34 in) long and weighs about 3.4 kg (7.4 lbs). Adoring the glistening blue-green plumage, the Indian peacock has an extension of feathers on its back. Each feather is exemplified with an eye at its end. The Indian peahen is a mixture of dull green, grey and iridescent blue, with the greenish-grey color outweighing. The bird is mostly found in the dry semi-desert grasslands, scrub and deciduous forests and feeds on mainly seeds, but some also eat insects, fruits and reptiles
National Calendar of India
The Saka calendar used as the official civil calendar in the country is the National Calendar of India. It is used in India besides the Gregorian calendar by the Gazette of India, news broadcasts by All India Radio, calendars and communication document issued by control of Government of India. The Saka calendar, often referred as the Hindu calendar is originally named as Saka Samvat. It is also used for the calculation days of religious significance in the Hindu Religion in the country. You will always find a Saka calendar alongside a Gregorian calendar in an Indian Home.
Formation of Saka Calendar
In the Indian civil calendar, the initial period is the Saka Era. The Calendar is said to have begun with King Salivahana’s accession to the throne. It is used as a reference for most astronomical works in Sanskrit literature written after 500 AD. The calculation of ‘thitis’ i.e. dates in this Calendar are done in accordance with the actual positions of Sun and Moon in the universe. In the Saka calendar, the year 2009 AD is 1932
Adoption of Saka Calendar as National Calendar
The current national calendar of India i.e. the Saka Calendar was adopted as the National Calendar in 1957 by the Calendar Reform Committee which also made efforts to coincide the astronomical data and harmonize the usage of this calendar after rectification of some local errors. It came into usage from March 22, 1957 according to the Gregorian calendar which was actually Saka Era, Chaitra 1, 1879 according to the Saka Samvat. It was adopted as the National calendar in order to synchronize the usage of 30 different kinds of Calendar used in India at that time.
An Overview of the Saka Calendar
Saka Calendar is said to have begun from the vernal equinox of A.D. 79. The usage of the Calendar began from aka Era 1879, Chaitra 1, which corresponds to A.D. 1957 March 22. The Saka Calendar is similar to the Gregorian calendar on the terms that even the Saka calendar has a normal year of 365 days and a leap year has 366 days. In a leap year, an intercalary day is added to the end of Chaitra month of the year. There are 12 months in Saka Calendar which are named as Vaisakha, Jyestha, Asadha, Sravana, Bhadrapada, Asvina, Kartika Margasirsa, Pausa, Magh, Phalgura, and Chaitra.
National Flower of India
Lotus, botanically known as the Nillumbik Nucifera is the national flower of India. The Lotus plant is basically an aquatic plant with wide floating leaves and bright aromatic flowers which grow only in shallow waters. The Lotus plant has floating leaves and flowers. It has long aerated stems. The lotus flowers are extremely beautiful with an overlapping proportional motif of petals. It is considered to be a sacred flower and occupies unique position in the art and mythology of ancient India. This flower has been an auspicious symbol of Indian culture since time immemorial
Choice of Lotus As National Flower
The Lotus Flower symbolizes divinity, fertility, wealth, knowledge and enlightenment. It is also regarded as a symbol of triumph as it can survive to regerminate for thousands of years. Lotus represents long life, honor, and good fortune. Untouched by the impurity despite growing in mud, the flower is also meant to symbolize the purity of heart and mind. It holds additional significance for Hindus, as it is regarded as the symbol of many Gods and Goddesses and is often used in religious practices. It was because of these noble meanings and cultural significance that made the founding fathers of modern India enshrine the lotus in the Constitution as the National Flower.
Cultural Significance of Lotus
From ancient times the lotus has been considered to be a sacred symbol in Asian traditions representing sexual purity. It is also regarded as the symbol of purity and divinity by several religions. Hindus relate it to their Almighty, Vishnu, Brahma, Lakshmi and Sarasvati who are often depicted sitting upon this pious flower. As Lotus also stands as the symbol of divine beauty, it is used as a symbol to describe the beauty of Lord Vishnu by referring him as the ‘Lotus-Eyed One’. In the Hindu Mythology, the unfolding petals of Lotus signify the expansion of the soul. As the Lotus carries piousness despite growing from the mud, it is said to represent a caring spiritual promise. The Buddhists consider the Lotus Flower to be sacred and auspicious as the flower stands for faithfulness in their religion. The lotus plant has also been cited as a sacred flower extensively in the ancient Puranic and Vedic literature
- Apart from India, Lotus is also the national flower of Vietnam.
- In Egypt the Lotus Flowers are considered to auspicious because they are regarded as the symbol of Sun God.
- Lotus seeds are medicinal in nature and are used for the treatment of kidney, spleen, and heart ailments. They are also considered beneficial in the treatment of Leucorrhea, palpitation and insomnia.
- Lotus seeds are also used as antidotes in mushroom poisoning.
- The seeds, leaves and tubers of the Lotus Flower are edible
National Fruit of India
Mango, cultivated in India since times immemorial, is regarded as the National Fruit of the country. Described as the “Food of the Gods”, in the sacred Vedas, the fruit is grown almost in all parts of India, except the hilly areas, but is mainly available in the summer season only. There are more than 100 varieties of mangos in India, in a range of colors, sizes, and shapes. The common names used in context of the fruit are, Mangot, Manga, and Mangou. The eact origin of the term ‘mango’ is not known. It is believed to have come from the Portuguese term ‘manga’, which is probably from Malayalam ‘manga’
Mango finds a mentioned in the Indian history as well. In fact, the famous poet Kalidasa is known to have sung its praises. Apart from that, ancient Greek King Alexander the Great and Chinese pilgrim Hieun Tsang have been said to have savored its taste. Historical records also mention the instance of Mughal Kinf Akbar planting 100,000 mango trees in Darbhanga, known as Lakhibagh. Mangos, liked for their sweet juice and bright colors all around the world, are known to be rich in vitamin A, C, and D.
Mangoes are available in different sizes, ranging from 10 to 25 cm in length and 7 to 12 cm in width. In terms of weight, a single mango can be as heavy as 2.5 kg. The fruit come in a wide variety of colors, such as green, yellow, red, and even various combinations of all these colors. Mango has a flat, oblong seed in the center, which is covered by the sweet pulp. Covering the pulp is a thin layer of skin, which is peeled off before eating the fruit. When ripe, the unpeeled fruit gives off a distinct, resinous sweet smell.
a large number of mango varieties can be found in India. the most popular ones include ‘Alphonso’ (also called ‘Hapoons’), ‘Amravati’, ‘Bangalore’, ‘Banganapalli’ (also known as ‘Benishaan’), ‘Bombay’, ‘Bombay Green’, ‘Chausa’, ‘Chinna Rasalu’, ‘Dashaheri’ (‘Daseri’), ‘Fazli’, ‘Fernandian’, ‘Gulabkhas’, ‘Himayath’ (a.k.a. ‘Imam Pasand’), ‘Himsagar’, ‘Jehangir’, ‘Kesar’, ‘Kishen Bhog’, ‘Lalbaug’, ‘Langda’ (‘Langra’), ‘Mallika’, ‘Mankurad’, ‘Mulgoa’, ‘Neelam’, ‘Pairi’, ‘Pedda Rasalu’, ‘Rajapuri’, ‘Safeda’, ‘Suvarnarekha’, ‘Totapuri’, ‘Vanraj’ and ‘Zardalu’.
Frost-free climate is best for the growth of Mangos. If temperatures drop below 40° F, even for a short period, the flowers and small fruits already grown on the tree can get killed. This is it available in the summer season only. Mango can grow well in large containers and a greenhouse as well. Mango trees are shady in nature. They grow very fast and can reach a height of as much as 65 ft. The life of mango trees is generally very long and some specimens are known to be over 300 years old and still fruiting.
National Tree of India
The national tree of India, banyan is a very huge structure, long and deep roots and branches symbolize the country’s unity. One can find banyan trees in throughout the nation. The huge sized tree acts as a shield, protects from hot sun. This is the reason why the tree is planted near homes, temples, villages and roadsides. In the rural parts of the country, banyan tree is considered as the focal point of the Panchayats and the gathering place for village councils and meetings. The tree is also considered sacred by the Hindus of India. With high medicinal value, banyan is often used as a herb to treat and cure many diseases. Given below is the description of banyan, the national tree of India
Importance In The Indian Culture
The tradition of worshipping ‘sacred’ trees is prevalent among the people following Hinduism, since ages. Rig Veda and Atharva Veda stipulate that trees should be worshipped, for their inevitable role in human life. Banyan is considered one among the sacred trees. In the Hindu mythology, Lord Shiva is sometimes depicted sitting in silence, under the banyan tree, with the saints sitting at His feet. With its seemingly unending expansion, the banyan tree symbolizes eternal life. In Hindu culture, the tree is often called ‘kalpavriksha’, a Sanskrit word, which means ‘a divine tree that fulfills wishes’. Married Hindu women worship the banyan tree to lead a long and happy married life.
Banyan tree is characterized by a tangle of branches, roots and trunks. The tree is deeply rooted, which may spread across several acres. It is huge in size, thereby giving protection from hot sun. The tree bears fruits that look like figs. The fruits, which appear red in color when matured, are not edible. The dark green leaves of the tree are large and leathery. This is the reason why, the leaves are used as animal fodder. The flowers produced by the tree often attract wasps, for pollination. An old banyan tree can reach more than 656 feet in diameter and can be as tall as 98 feet. The rubber, produced from the sticky milk of banyan tree, is used for gardening.
- The name ‘banyan’ is derived from Banias, who rested under the trees to discuss their strategies regarding business.
- The widest tree in the world – the Great Banyan – is located in Kolkata. The tree is about 250 years old.
- Historical records say that Alexander the Great camped under a banyan tree that was large enough to provide shelter to his army of 7000 men.
- In many parts of the world, the wood and bark of the banyan tree are used for making paper.
- People even make use of the roots of the tree to make ropes, in order to secure wood bundles.
- The sap produced by banyan tree is often used to produce shellac, a strong adhesive. It can also be used to make surface-finisher.
- Women in Nepal crush the root of the banyan tree with a paste to make a herbal product, which is used by them as a hair and skin conditioner.
- In India and Pakistan, the twigs of banyan tree are sold as toothpicks in order to promote dental health.
- Banyan tree is well known for its medicinal uses. Its sap is a medicine for treating external skin inflammations and bruising, dysentery, toothaches and ulcers. Its bark and seeds are used to produce a herbal tonic that can cool the body. Diabetic patients are also treated by the tonic made from banyan trees.
—- Jai Hindh